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PSM Simplified: School Health Service in India

school health service India

Objectives of School Health Service are:

  • Promotion of positive health
  • prevention of diseases
  • early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up
  • awakening health consciousness in children
  • provision of healthful environment

Aspects of School Health Service

  1. Health appraisal of school children and School personnel
  2. Remedial measures and follow-up
  3. Prevention of communicable disease
  4. Health full school environment
  5. Nutritional services
  6. First-aid and emergency care
  7. Mental health
  8. Dental health
  9. Eye health
  10. Health education
  11. Education of handicapped children
  12. Proper maintenance and use of school health records

school health service India
Source: GiveIndia

Health appraisal of school children and school personnel

Health appraisal consists of periodic medical examination and observation of the children by the class teacher. The health appraisal should cover the students, teachers, and other school personnel.

  1. Periodic medical examination: Clinical examination for nutritional deficiencies, stool examination for intestinal parasitosis, tuberculin testing, growth monitoring, annual vision testing. Parents are encouraged to be present at the time of medical examination
  2. Examination of school personnel
  3. Daily morning inspection.

Remedial measures and follow up

Medical examinations should be followed by appropriate treatment and follow-up. Special health clinics should be conducted exclusively for school children at primary health centers in the rural areas and one of the selected schools for a group of 5000 children in urban areas.

Prevention of communicable diseases.

School administration must plan a well-planned Immunization program to control common infectious diseases. Record of immunization must be maintained as a part of school health records, and it should accompany the child when the child is leaving the school.

Healthful school environment

  • Location: Away from noisy environment; kept fenced
  • Site: 5 acres for primary schools; 10 acres for higher elimentary schools
  • Structure: Exterior walls 10 inch think and heat resistant
  • Classroom: 1 classroom per 40 students maximum
  • Per capita space: >10 sq feet
  • Furniture: Single desks of minus (-) type
  • Doors and windows: Doors and windows > 25% of floor area
  • Color: Inside colors of walls should be white
  • Lighting: Natural light from the left side
  • Water Supply: Safe and potable supply of water
  • Lavatory: 1 urinal per 60 students and 1 latrine per 100 students

Nutritionals services

  • Mid-day school meal: Students who can afford can bring lunch packet from home. Meal should be offered at school canteens at no profit no loss model. It should cover 1/3rd of daily calorie requirement and half of the required protein uptake
    • Mid-day meal programme: school lunch programme
      • Major Objective: To attract more children for admission to schools and retain them so that there is literacy improvement of children
      • MDMP is operation under ministry of human resource devbelopemnt.
    • Mid-day meal scheme: national programme for nutritionall support to primary education
      • Main Objective: Universalisation of primary education by incraesing enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously impacting on the nutritional status of primary schiool children.
  • Applied nutrition programme: UNICEF is assisting in the implementation of applied nutrition programme in the form of implements, seeds, water supply equipment and manure. These facilities can be utilised in developing school gardens
  • Specific nutrients: use of specific nutrients is indicated to prevent certain nutritional disorders in the community.

First aid and emergency care

The responsibility of giving first aid and emergency care to the pupils who become sick or injured on the school premises lies with the teacher. Hence all teachers should be trained adequately.

Mental health

School management should give adequate time for relaxation to children. The school must provide counseling against tobacco and substance addiction.

Dental Health

Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the two common dental diseases in India. Dental Examination must be carried out as part of the school health program at least once a year.

Eye health

Schools should provide early detection of refractive errors, treatment of squint and amblyopia, and detection and treatment of eye diseases such as trachoma. Administration of Vitamin A to children at risk. Basic eye health services must be provided at schools.

Health Education

It is the most important component of School health service. Schools must provide health education on various aspects such as personal hygiene, immunization, first-aid, safety, mental health, nutritional, adult health, family health, drug abuse, community health, international health.

Education of handicapped children

The ultimate goal is to assist the child and family in reaching their maximum potential, leading as normal a life as possible, becoming independent, and becoming a productive contributing member of society.

School health records

These records should contain cumulative information regarding a child such as identification data, past health history, a record of findings of physical examination and screening tests, and a record of services provided.

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